ametsheykhumer

Крымская война: крымцы и союзники

Взаимоотношения крымских татар и союзников (Англия, Турция, Франция) рассмотрены в работах Хакана Кырымлы и Арсения Маркевича. Есть статья  об участии крымцев в войне на стороне Османского государства: Кырымлы Х. О крымскотатарских войсках в составе Османской армии в период Крымской войны // Культура народов Причерноморья. — 2003. — № 43. — С. 299-303. И еще о крымских татарах, которые в местах высадки союзников помогали провиантом и показывали дорогу, а также грабили русские имения — Маркевич А.И. Таврическая губерния во время Крымской войны: по архивным материалам. - Симферополь, 1905. С. 10-33.

Есть также подробная статья про крымских татар в годы Крымской войны — Kirimli H. A Scion of the Crimean Khans in the Crimean War: The Allied Powers and the Question of the Future of the Crimea // Middle Eastern Studies. 2013. Vol. 49. №2. Pp. 191–220.

Приведу из нее несколько цитат.

C. 199: «The presence of a common belief in Britain about the disaffection of the Crimean Tatars against Russia and sympathy towards Turkey (together with some doubts) was also voiced at the British Parliament on 24 July 1854. At the beginning of the Crimean campaign The Times stated:

In the Crimea there is great reason to suppose that if the inhabitants are kindly treated, paid for their produce, and made to understand the object of the expedition, they will be more ready to sympathize with the invaders than to assist their former masters. The Turkish division of the army will serve as a link between the Mahomedan population and the European forces; for although nearly 70 years have elapsed since the Turks were compelled to evacuate their last position in the Crimea, the country has not lost its Tartar character, and it was thought by no means impossible that with a little assistance from the other side of the Black Sea the population would be disposed to rise against the Russian yoke».

С. 201-202. Министр иностранных дел Британии Кларендон считал крымских татар друзьями, поддерживавшими дело союзников: «The British secretary of state was also concerned about the fate of the Crimean Tatars:

We should however be delivering up to [the tsar’s] tender mercies the Tartars who have (as appears to be the case) committed themselves in our favour – wherefore  this latter point – I have the strongest feeling, for if we have accepted the services of these poor people and thereby exposed them to Russia’s vengeance, they must not be deserted».

С. 212: "Generally pleasant relations existed between the British troops and the local Crimean Tatar population on the occupied lands as far as daily affairs were concerned. Apart from that, the British interest in the fate of the Crimean Tatars was confined to a few humanitarian issues such as displaying limited concern about the care and transportation of refugees in Kezlev. Otherwise, they refrained from anything resembling a political commitment toward them. At any rate, as has already been shown, the British were keen not to have any involvement in the venture of Mesud Geray in the Crimea. Perhaps the last occasion when the British showed any concern about the Crimean Tatars was during the Allied evacuation of the Crimea following the Treaty of Paris. In an interview with Prince Aleksey Fyodorovich Orlov, the Russian plenipotentiary to the Paris Congress, Clarendon raised the issue of the Crimean Tatars who had collaborated with the Allies. Thereupon, Orlov promised Clarendon ‘that no harm should befall the Tartars in the Crimea who had taken part with the Allies, and particularly those who had been engaged in the British Service’.

с. 213-214: «In late 1854, the Ottoman commander-in-chief Omer Pasha asked the Porte to € donate grain for some 30,000 Crimean Tatar refugees in Kezlev who were then suffering from starvation. He also proposed to make use of the able-bodied ones by arming them. Sultan Abdulmecid granted the requested aid the following month. € 131 In any case, the recruitment of the Crimean Tatars to the militia had already been started by then. Indeed, the Ottomans, like the other Allies, did cooperate with the local Crimean Tatars on practical and exigent matters during their occupation. However, there is no evidence of systematic attempt by the Ottoman army to activate the Crimean Tatar population as a whole either in the occupied territories or in other parts of the Crimea.

The official Ottoman outlook was reflected in Mesud Geray’s case. To be sure, Mesud Geray had been brought to the Crimea without any Ottoman involvement. It is noteworthy that even when a Geray, one of the heirs of the Crimean Khanate and an Ottoman subject, was on Crimean soil, the Porte did not contemplate a political move concerning the Crimean Tatars or making use of the Gerays within the context of such a design. Although the Ottoman officers on the Crimean front were certainly aware of the activities of Mesud Geray in Kezlev, an analysis of the contemporary documents clearly indicates that Istanbul had no information or interest in the Geray Sultan’s presence there. None of the several Ottoman documents dealing with the departure of Mesud Geray from the Crimea make any reference to his being a member of the Geray dynasty and his significance for the Crimean Tatars. In the document which was submitted to Mesud Geray by the Crimean Tatar clergy, notables, and other influential members of the population of Kezlev, they declared that they were ready to sacrifice their lives for the sake of the Ottoman empire".

В Евпатории было сформировано ополчение численностью в 800 человек (с. 197). 300 крымских татар поступило на службу в османскую армию (в том числе из рядов ополчения?), 150 — во французскую. Еще некоторое (неизвестное мне) количество — в британскую. 

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