ametsheykhumer

Османский взгляд на татар

Многое написано о восприятии крымских татар эпохи ханства в Европе (см. многочисленные работы Н. Храпунова). Есть и работы о турецком (в том числе османском) взгляде на татар. См. Petrovic M. Uncanny Beloveds and the Return of the Repressed // Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée. №. 143, 2018, p. 249-266.

Автор прямо сравнивает европейское и османское восприятие татар (например, Эвлия Челеби и Лейбниц), находя их похожими. Загадочные и дикие, храбрые и экзотические, непостоянные и жестокие татары являли собой не только «Восток в Европе», но и «Север в Азии» (не знаю, насколько вторая метафора уместна) — турки думали о татарах приблизительно то же что и европейцы. 

Большая цитата: «Before chuckling at Evliyā’s naïveté, we should remember that Leibniz (d.1716), who was his junior by some twenty years, similarly alternated between dread and vivid curiosity about “Scythians” and Tatars...

Biblical implications aside, similarities between the judgements made by Leibniz and Evliyā were not entirely coincidental. Ottoman writers also concurred with their Polish contemporaries in their assessment of the living conditions of steppe Tatars, focusing on their unusual nutritional virtues and vices. Their velocity was matchless. They grew into fierce warriors because they could survive on so little, even forsaking water for lengths at a time. Their moderation in food freed them from dependence on grain commerce. The dark side of such admiration for Tatar frugality and their remarkable speed of movement emerged in their predilection for unrefined and barely cooked food. 

In short, steppe Tatars offered an Ottoman equivalent to Rousseau’s concept of noble savages (in turn inspired by Montaigne’s famous essay). Their customs and peculiarities gave them superhuman abilities of endurance in battle, but it also rendered them more animalistic and even repellent in spite of their occasional cooperation with urban dwellers. Accordingly, their cleanliness was questionable, as in the Turkish riddle about a flea, which equates it with the arrival of a Tatar who should be squeezed and crushed with the fingernails (gelince Tatarına/ben ona tutarina, parmakla sıkarına/tırnakla ezerine, see Başgöz, 1973:332)».

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