ametsheykhumer

Аскеры

Наталья Круликовская в статье "Crimean Crime Stories. Cases of Homicide and Bodily Harm during the Reign of Murad Giray (1678–1683)" пишет об аскерах (военном сословии ханства) (с. 114):

"The division of society into Muslims and non-Muslims has its roots in Islamic law. It is perhaps appropriate to ask whether one could have classified Crimean society using different criteria. An important characteristic of the Ottoman Empire was the division into tax-paying subjects (reʿāyā) and the military and administrative class (askerī) that enjoyed tax-exemption, a division rooted in secular Ottoman law. Members of the askerī  class were subject to a separate jurisdiction. Instead of having their cases adjudicated in regular Muslim courts, they appeared before judicialforums named by the sultan. The question arises whether such a distinction betweentax-paying and tax-exempt subjects existed in the Crimean Khanate. Our sourcesoffer an ambiguous answer. On the one hand, the khans’ orders suggest such a division, since they adopt common Ottoman terms: reʿāyā in reference to tax-payers, and ʿaskerī  in reference to the tax-exempt elite (the alternate term ḳul  is used in ref-erence to the khan’s courtiers and soldiers, although not to his judicial and religious officials). The former category, reʿāyā, included both Muslim and non-Muslim common subjects; the latter consisted of the military and administrative elite. In addition, the rulers seemed to favor separate jurisdictions reserved for members of the army. 

On the other hand, there were substantial differences in the composition of the Ottoman and the Crimean elite. The classification of the Crimean nobility is notsimple, although it is quite clear that its members did not pay taxes to the khan’streasury. As has been mentioned, some nobles served as the khan’s officials, and theruler had the right of life and death over them. Therefore, they could be treated asmembers of the ʿaskerī class. Other nobles, especially members and clients of the ḳaraçı families, seldom had careers in the khan’s service. They derived their incomefrom their family estates (beyliks) and from spoils of war; thus, these nobles werenot directly paid by the khan. The extent of their judicial subordination to the ruler isunclear and requires further research. It is doubtful whether these nobles can be in-cluded in the ʿaskerī class in the Ottoman understanding of the term. In light of thisambiguity, it is unclear whether Crimean society can be described as divided into tax- payers and the tax-exempt elite. Presumably, such a distinction existed in the territories of the Giray family’s domains. However, it is unknown whether such a divisionwas also typical among the inhabitants of the estates of the ḳaraçı families".

Error

Anonymous comments are disabled in this journal

default userpic

Your reply will be screened